The standard FFTW libraries include special wrapper functions that allow Fortran programs to call FFTW subroutines. This chapter describes how those functions may be employed to use FFTW from Fortran. We assume here that the reader is already familiar with the usage of FFTW in C, as described elsewhere in this manual.
In general, it is not possible to call C functions directly from
Fortran, due to Fortran's inability to pass arguments by value and also
because Fortran compilers typically expect identifiers to be mangled
somehow for linking. However, if C functions are written in a special
way, they are callable from Fortran, and we have employed this
technique to create Fortran-callable "wrapper" functions around the
main FFTW routines. These wrapper functions are included in the FFTW
libraries by default, unless a Fortran compiler isn't found on your
system or --disable-fortran
is included in the configure
flags.
As a result, calling FFTW from Fortran requires little more than
appending `_f77
' to the function names and then linking
normally with the FFTW libraries. There are a few wrinkles, however, as
we shall discuss below.
All of the uniprocessor and multi-threaded transform routines have
Fortran-callable wrappers, except for the wisdom import/export functions
(since it is not possible to exchange string and file arguments portably
with Fortran) and the specific planner routines (see Section Discussion on Specific Plans). The name of the wrapper routine is the same as that
of the corresponding C routine, but with
fftw/fftwnd/rfftw/rfftwnd
replaced by
fftw_f77/fftwnd_f77/rfftw_f77/rfftwnd_f77
. For example, in
Fortran, instead of calling fftw_one
you would call
fftw_f77_one
.(8)
For the most part, all of the arguments to the functions are the same,
with the following exceptions:
plan
variables (what would be of type fftw_plan
,
rfftwnd_plan
, etcetera, in C), must be declared as a type that is
at least as big as a pointer (address) on your machine; we recommend
simply using integer*8
on all machines (this should work on both
32-bit and 64-bit machines).
fftw_create_plan
) is
converted into a subroutine. The return value is converted into an
additional (first) parameter of the wrapper subroutine. (The reason for
this is that some Fortran implementations seem to have trouble with C
function return values.)
FFTW_IN_PLACE
transforms, you
don't have the option of passing NULL
for the out
argument
(since there is no way to pass NULL
from Fortran). Therefore,
when performing such transforms, you must allocate and pass a
contiguous scratch array of the same size as the transform. Note that
for in-place multi-dimensional ((r)fftwnd
) transforms, the
out
argument is ignored, so you can pass anything for that
parameter.
In general, you should take care to use Fortran data types that
correspond to (i.e. are the same size as) the C types used by FFTW. If
your C and Fortran compilers are made by the same vendor, the
correspondence is usually straightforward (i.e. integer
corresponds to int
, real
corresponds to float
,
etcetera). Such simple correspondences are assumed in the examples
below. The examples also assume that FFTW was compiled in
double precision (the default).
When creating plans in FFTW, a number of constants are used to specify
options, such as FFTW_FORWARD
or FFTW_USE_WISDOM
. The
same constants must be used with the wrapper routines, but of course the
C header files where the constants are defined can't be incorporated
directly into Fortran code.
Instead, we have placed Fortran equivalents of the FFTW constant
definitions in the file fortran/fftw_f77.i
of the FFTW package.
If your Fortran compiler supports a preprocessor, you can use that to
incorporate this file into your code whenever you need to call FFTW.
Otherwise, you will have to paste the constant definitions in directly.
They are:
integer FFTW_FORWARD,FFTW_BACKWARD parameter (FFTW_FORWARD=-1,FFTW_BACKWARD=1) integer FFTW_REAL_TO_COMPLEX,FFTW_COMPLEX_TO_REAL parameter (FFTW_REAL_TO_COMPLEX=-1,FFTW_COMPLEX_TO_REAL=1) integer FFTW_ESTIMATE,FFTW_MEASURE parameter (FFTW_ESTIMATE=0,FFTW_MEASURE=1) integer FFTW_OUT_OF_PLACE,FFTW_IN_PLACE,FFTW_USE_WISDOM parameter (FFTW_OUT_OF_PLACE=0) parameter (FFTW_IN_PLACE=8,FFTW_USE_WISDOM=16) integer FFTW_THREADSAFE parameter (FFTW_THREADSAFE=128)
In C, you combine different flags (like FFTW_USE_WISDOM
and
FFTW_MEASURE
) using the `|
' operator; in Fortran you
should just use `+
'.
In C you might have something like the following to transform a one-dimensional complex array:
fftw_complex in[N], *out[N]; fftw_plan plan; plan = fftw_create_plan(N,FFTW_FORWARD,FFTW_ESTIMATE); fftw_one(plan,in,out); fftw_destroy_plan(plan);
In Fortran, you use the following to accomplish the same thing:
double complex in, out dimension in(N), out(N) integer*8 plan call fftw_f77_create_plan(plan,N,FFTW_FORWARD,FFTW_ESTIMATE) call fftw_f77_one(plan,in,out) call fftw_f77_destroy_plan(plan)
Notice how all routines are called as Fortran subroutines, and the plan
is returned via the first argument to fftw_f77_create_plan
.
Important: these examples assume that integer
is the same
size as a pointer, and may need modification on a 64-bit machine.
See Section Wrapper Routines, above. To do the same thing, but using 8
threads in parallel (see Section Multi-threaded FFTW), you would simply
replace the call to fftw_f77_one
with:
call fftw_f77_threads_one(8,plan,in,out)
To transform a three-dimensional array in-place with C, you might do:
fftw_complex arr[L][M][N]; fftwnd_plan plan; int n[3] = {L,M,N}; plan = fftwnd_create_plan(3,n,FFTW_FORWARD, FFTW_ESTIMATE | FFTW_IN_PLACE); fftwnd_one(plan, arr, 0); fftwnd_destroy_plan(plan);
In Fortran, you would use this instead:
double complex arr dimension arr(L,M,N) integer n dimension n(3) integer*8 plan n(1) = L n(2) = M n(3) = N call fftwnd_f77_create_plan(plan,3,n,FFTW_FORWARD, + FFTW_ESTIMATE + FFTW_IN_PLACE) call fftwnd_f77_one(plan, arr, 0) call fftwnd_f77_destroy_plan(plan)
Instead of calling fftwnd_f77_create_plan(plan,3,n,...)
, we could
also have called fftw3d_f77_create_plan(plan,L,M,N,...)
.
Note that we pass the array dimensions in the "natural" order; also
note that the last argument to fftwnd_f77
is ignored since the
transform is FFTW_IN_PLACE
.
To transform a one-dimensional real array in Fortran, you might do:
double precision in, out dimension in(N), out(N) integer*8 plan call rfftw_f77_create_plan(plan,N,FFTW_REAL_TO_COMPLEX, + FFTW_ESTIMATE) call rfftw_f77_one(plan,in,out) call rfftw_f77_destroy_plan(plan)
To transform a two-dimensional real array, out of place, you might use the following:
double precision in double complex out dimension in(M,N), out(M/2 + 1, N) integer*8 plan call rfftw2d_f77_create_plan(plan,M,N,FFTW_REAL_TO_COMPLEX, + FFTW_ESTIMATE) call rfftwnd_f77_one_real_to_complex(plan, in, out) call rfftwnd_f77_destroy_plan(plan)
Important: Notice that it is the first dimension of the complex output array that is cut in half in Fortran, rather than the last dimension as in C. This is a consequence of the wrapper routines reversing the order of the array dimensions passed to FFTW so that the Fortran program can use its ordinary column-major order.
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